المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : تقرير لمادة eng 202


x.al-3aneed.x
25-04-2011, 06:46 PM
Contents

Introduction. 3 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987149)
Role of Construction Laborer. 3 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987150)
Hazards and Solutions to Construction Laborers. 3 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987151)
Scaffolding. 4 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987152)
Fall Protection. 5 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987153)
Hazard Communication. 5 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987154)
Head Protection. 6 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987155)
Conclusion. 7 (http://students-bh.com/vb/newthread.php?do=newthread&f=123#_Toc290987156)

















Introduction


Construction workers are employed in the construction industry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_industry) and work predominantly on construction sites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_site) and are typically engaged in aspects of the industry other than design or finance. The term includes general construction workers, also referred to as labourers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labourers) and members of specialist trade such electricians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrician), carpenters (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpenter) and plumbers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumber). Construction laborers will be represented in this report as one of the dangerous job in the construction filed.
Role of Construction Laborer


Construction laborer can be found on almost all construction sites, performing a wide range of tasks from the very easy to the hazardous. They can be found at building, highway, and heavy construction sites; residential and commercial sites; tunnel and shaft excavations; and demolition sites. Many of the jobs they perform require physical strength, training, and experience. Other jobs require little skill and can be learned quickly. Although most construction laborers specialize in a type of construction, such as highway or tunnel construction, some are generalists who perform many different tasks during all stages of construction. Construction laborers who work in underground construction, such as in tunnels, or in demolition are more likely to specialize in only those areas.
Construction laborers clean and prepare construction sites. They remove trees and debris; tend pumps, compressors, and generators; and erect and disassemble scaffolding and other temporary structures. They load, unload, identify, and distribute building materials to the appropriate location according to project plans and specifications. Laborers also tend machines; for example, they may use a portable mixer to mix concrete or tend a machine that pumps concrete, grout, cement, sand, plaster, or stucco through a spray gun for application to ceilings and walls. They often help other craftworkers, including carpenters, plasterers, operating engineers, and masons.
Construction laborers are responsible for the installation and maintenance of traffic control devices and patterns. At highway construction sites, this work may include clearing and preparing highway work zones and rights-of-way; installing traffic barricades, cones, and markers; and controlling traffic passing near, in, and around work zones. Construction laborers also dig trenches; install sewer, water, and storm drainpipes; and place concrete and asphalt on roads. Other highly specialized tasks include operating laser guidance equipment to place pipes; operating air, electric, and pneumatic drills; and transporting and setting explosives for the construction of tunnels, shafts, and roads.
Some construction laborers help with the removal of hazardous materials, such as asbestos, lead, or chemicals.
Hazards and Solutions to Construction Laborers


The construction industry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_industry) is the most dangerous land based civilian work .The problem is not that the hazards and risks are unknown, it is that they are very difficult to control in a constantly changing work environment. The two biggest safety hazards on site are falls from height and vehicles, but there are many more (electricity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity) and being buried while working in excavations being two more examples). Some potential hazards for workers in construction include:
· Falls (from heights);
· Trench collapse;
· Scaffold collapse;
· Electric shock and arc flash/arc blast;
· Failure to use proper personal protective equipment; and
· Repetitive motion injuries.
The most frequently hazards in construction site will be represented with some solutions and recommendations to eliminate the problem.
Scaffolding

Hazard: When scaffolds are not erected or used properly, fall hazards can occur such as falling from scaffolds and slight to series injured.

Figure (1): Scaffolding
Solutions:
1. Scaffold must be sound, rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus four times the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. It must be erected on solid footing.
2. Unstable objects, such as barrels, boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks must not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
3. Scaffold must not be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under the supervision of a competent person.
4. Scaffold must be equipped with guardrails, midrails and toeboards.
5. Scaffold accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs or ladders that are damaged or weakened from any cause must be immediately repaired or replaced.
6. A "competent person" must inspect the scaffolding and, at designated intervals, reinspect it.
7. Rigging on suspension scaffolds must be inspected by a competent person before each shift and after any occurrence that could affect structural integrity to ensure that all connections are tight and that no damage to the rigging has occurred since its last use.
8. Employees must be instructed about the hazards of using diagonal braces as fall protection.
9. Scaffold can be accessed by using ladders and stairwells.
10. Scaffolds must be at least 10 feet from electric power lines at all times.

Fall Protection

Hazard: Each year, falls consistently account for the greatest number of fatalities in the construction industry. A number of factors are often involved in falls, including unstable working surfaces, misuse or failure to use fall protection equipment and human error. Studies have shown that using guardrails, fall arrest systems, safety nets, covers and restraint systems can prevent many deaths and injuries from falls.

Figure (2): unsuitable working surface

Solutions:
1. Consider using aerial lifts or elevated platforms to provide safer elevated working surfaces;
2. Erect guardrail systems with toeboards and warning lines or install control line systems to protect workers near the edges of floors and roofs;
3. Cover floor holes;
4. Use safety net systems or personal fall arrest systems (body harnesses).

Hazard Communication

Hazard: Failure to recognize the hazards associated with chemicals can cause chemical burns, respiratory problems, fires and explosions.

Solutions:
1. Maintain a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical in the facility.
2. Make this information accessible to employees at all times in a language or formats that are clearly understood by all affected personnel.
3. Train employees on how to read and use the MSDS.
4. Follow manufacturer's MSDS instructions for handling hazardous chemicals.
5. Train employees about the risks of each hazardous chemical being used.
6. Provide spill clean-up kits in areas where chemicals are stored.
7. Have a written spill control plan.
8. Train employees to clean up spills, protect themselves and properly dispose of used materials.
9. Provide proper personal protective equipment and enforce its use.
10. Store chemicals safely and securely.

Figure (3): Material Safety Data Sheets
Head Protection

Hazard: Serious head injuries can result from blows to the head.

Solution:
Be sure that workers wear hard hats where there is a potential for objects falling from above, bumps to their heads from fixed objects, or accidental head contact with electrical hazards.

Figure (4): Wearing Hard Hats (Helmet)

Conclusion


Construction worker is one of the dangerous jobs which achieve the laborer into hazard satiation; however it is a helpful job which improves the development of the country they work in. Taking safety issues is a solution to avoid hazard affect of this practical job.



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لاتحرمونه من ردودكم

ssayed
25-04-2011, 06:49 PM
الله يعطيك العافية
بس ممنوع يوضعون تقارير :sweatdrop:

عبدالله عبدالعزيز
28-02-2012, 06:48 PM
مشكوور حبيبي :smailes60:

coolhassan
28-02-2012, 07:32 PM
مخالف ...
يمنع وضع التقارير أو طلبها

رجل زمان
07-03-2012, 08:48 PM
شكرا لك كثيرا بصراحة ريحتنا

جواديان
11-03-2012, 05:02 PM
الله يعطيك العافية smile1:

الشمس المنيرة
18-03-2012, 04:11 PM
امبا تقرير انج 202 في المواضيع
life in 2030
my dream job
travelling
my ideal school
ويا التلخيص summary
ياريت قبل امتحانات المنتصف

الشمس المنيرة
22-03-2012, 05:31 PM
ياريت احد ارد علي

بريق أمل
31-03-2012, 09:06 PM
مشكووور
:ongue::ongue::ongue::ongue::ongue::ongue:

نور عيني صمود
01-04-2012, 04:13 PM
شعب شنو الفقرات لي بجي "سس

متملل من الدراسة
01-04-2012, 09:41 PM
احنا من سنين نبي تقرير ومو محصلنين ..
ان شاءالله عقب المنتصف نتفرغ لهم عدل

مضيع اسمه
14-04-2012, 03:29 PM
حاليي من حالك خال .. ابي

الارجنتيني
16-04-2012, 07:48 PM
ما في امل نحصل يعني .

durazibh
25-03-2013, 05:12 PM
تسلم خوك:laugh:

حسين حبيب
02-12-2014, 04:28 PM
تسلم الخال:smailes60: